The Other Cassius Clay by Brian Tice (Yiddishkeit 101, 2020) is a historical stageplay chronicling the life of controversial emancipationist Cassius Marcellus Clay. His name may sound familiar, as one of the slaves he freed was the ancestor of American pro boxer Muhammad Ali (formerly Cassius Clay). His anti-slavery activism in central Kentucky earned him a large number of enemies and several attempts on his life. Lincoln appointed him US Ambassador to Russia to protect his life, and he held that post well into the Grant Administraton, but he would consider his greatest achievement to be his role in the founding of the nation’s first integrated college — Berea College in Kentucky. The play was first performed by Rockhill Free Theatre Players in Kalamazoo, Michigan on February 7 & 8, 2003 as an unpublished work sponsored by Kalamazoo Valley Community College and the Kalamazoo Russian Festival. Purchase of the book includes public performance rights.
Perhaps the greatest crisis in Jewish history was the period known as the Babylonian Captivity. It was actually the apex of a progression of calamities beginning with the Assyrian Captivity of 711/12 BCE. Though the Assyrian siege targeted only the northern kingdom of Israel, more than just the tribes of the North were impacted. There was a great influx of northern kingdom citizens into the southern kingdom of Judah in the frenzy to escape exile, so that all 12 Israelite tribes came to be represented in the population of Judah. Many (but not all) were taken into captivity in Assyria.
Babylon would later seize control over the Assyrian kingdom and inherit all of her captives, including the exiled Israelites. The Israelites proved to be very self-sufficient, making good lives for themselves outside the Land of Israel. Nebuchadnezzar recognized this and in 607 BCE took captive 4 men of renown from the southern kingdom of Judah: Daniel, Shadrach, Meshak, and Abed-Nego. A second wave of captive-taking occurred in 597 BCE, and a third and final wave followed in 586/587 BCE.
During the next fifty years, closing with the Cyrus Decree of 536/537 BCE, a Diaspora court called the Anshei Knesset HaG’dolah (Men of the Great Synagogue) was convened. It consisted of 120 Sages with the Scribe Ezra presiding. This court aimed to unite the scattered synagogues which had emerged throughout the Babylonian Empire around a common liturgical system. They developed the parasha schedule, dividing the Torah Shebikhtav into 54 portions, one for each week of the Biblical calendar, so that every synagogue would be on the same passage on any given Sabbath. They also determined that seats should be made available in the synagogues. Up to this time, worship was conducted with all in attendance standing for the duration of the service, from sunup to sundown. These kinds of adjustments are called in Hebrew takkanot. Both of these innovations have stood the test of time, continuing to enjoy a central place in worship settings around the globe to this day.
Just as Ezra and the Men of the Great Synagogue got creative during the Babylonian Captivity in order to unify a Jewry which had become disconnected from Jerusalem and scattered, we now find ourselves doing the same thing… with new technology. Here are some examples.
This year’s top literary award goes to…
ANNOUNCEMENT WILL BE MADE FEBRUARY 28!
I’m pleased to have my contributor’s copy of Paul the Jew: Rereading the Apostle as a Figure of Second Temple Judaism, ed. Gabriele Boccaccini & Carlos A. Segovia (Fortress Press, 2016, the publisher’s online catalogue entry here). This volume presents edited versions of twelve papers given in an invitational conference held in Rome in 2014. […]
The first is the Covenant Name of Hashem (YHWH), which is traditionally not pronounced. Hundreds of years ago, the Masoretes gave us “ketiv qere” indicators to tell us what words to substitute for the Covenant Name (aka “tetragrammaton“). “Ketiv qere” means “written (differently than) read.”
When the niqqudot (vowel points) from the title “Adonai” (L-RD) are placed under the Name, it is traditionally read “Adonai“ instead of attempting to pronounce YHWH and guessing at what vowels go there; and when the niqqudot from the title “Elohim” (G-D) are present, we substitute “Elohim“ for the tetragrammaton. We do this out of reverence for the Holy One, blessed be He, and in obedience to the 3rd Commandment of the Decalogue: “You are not to take up the name of YHWH your God for emptiness, for YHWH will not clear him that takes up His name for emptiness” (Shemot/Exodus 20:7 TSB*). For another nuance to this discussion, see Prof. Brian Tice’s article on the historical use of nominae sacrae.
In many of our prayers, we here the juxtaposition of two titles of Hashem: “Adonai Eloheinu” (L-RD our G-D). It has been observed that in their contextual usage, the tetragrammaton appears in Scripture when the 13 attributes of mercy are being emphasized (grace, mercy, compassion, etc.), and the title Elohim (the lexical form from which Eloheinu comes) is used when the attributes of Judge and Creator are in view. When both are used in conjunction, both sets of attributes are in view.**
*TSB = Everett Fox, The Schocken Bible: The Five Books of Moses (New York: Schocken Books, 1995; used with permission). This translation was chosen for its diligence in preserving not only the literal meaning of the Hebrew text, but also the original rhythm of the text. It is a masterful translation, and highly recommended.