Kippah (כִּפָּה or כִּיפָּה) is from the root כפף, which means “to bend,” as in:
סוֹמֵ֣ךְ יְ֭הוָה לְכָל־הַנֹּפְלִ֑ים וְ֝זוֹקֵ֗ף לְכָל־הַכְּפוּפִֽים׃
“HaShem upholds all who are fallen and He raises up all who are bent.” (Psalms 145:14; v. 13 in Hebrew)
The alternative (Yiddish) name for the Jewish skullcap or kippah comes from Aramaic — yarmulke (יאַרמולקע) — and is a compound word combining yarma (fear/awe) and mulka (king): “awe of the King.” This reflects Talmud Babli tractate Shabbat 156b, which reads,
“Cover your head in order that the awe of heaven may be upon you.”
Biblical references for the command to cover the head in G-d’s presence (i.e. in times of prayer, including worship, meals, and in some interpretations any activities of the day) include the following:
- The Torah command for Aharon and his sons to wear head coverings in the Tabernacle (Exodus 28:4, 36-43; 29:6; 39:30-31; Leviticus 8:9, 13; 21:10).
- 2 Samuel 15:30 & Psalms 140:7 in re: King David wearing a head covering
- Ezekiel 44:18
- Zechariah 3:5
The democratization of the Priesthood from just the Cohenim to all Israel (Exodus 19:6; 1 Peter 2:9; Revelation 1:6) would extend this requirement upon all Believers.
Other related words:
- kaf “palm / hollow of the hand/foot,” the letter kaf (sofit), “(table)spoon”
- kappit “teaspoon”
- kappah “palm branch”
- kfafot “gloves”
Recommended reading for older students: C. Welker, “Let’s Talk about Men’s Head Coverings,” The Refiner’s Fire (online: http://www.therefinersfire.org/kippa.htm).
The word כֵּן is an interesting one in that it has a different meaning (somewhat) in the Bible than it does in Modern Hebrew. You might know it as the Modern Hebrew word for “yes,” but when it appears in the Tanakh, the meaning is “thus” or “so” (as in “it is so”) as an adverb or “right, honest” as an adjective.
For more advanced students, Balashon (tr. “in the tongue/language”) has a very good article covering both of these meanings and how they likely connect.
The Hebrew word teshuvah comes from the hollow shoresh (root) שוב, which has a tandem (2-part) meaning:
- to turn away from sin, pagan ways, and/or worldliness, and
- to simultaneously turn to/toward HaShem and His ways.
This involves not just remorse over a committed sin, but also a commitment to never return to it, opting for Torah living instead.
Rabbi Daniel Lapin teaches that the root of the Hebrew word for faith (emunah) is a picture of the glue-making process: taking an animal (aleph) hide and soaking it in water (mem) to make a glue (nun = peg), so faith, like glue-making, involves a sacrifice — the sacrifice of whatever in us is pagan.
What does that look like? In Temple-less Judaism, it is constructed on the “Three Ts” — teshuvah (repentance), tefillah (prayer), and tzedeqah (righteousness, i.e. ministry to others). Judaism would agree with Ya’aqov (James) in his “faith without works is dead” teaching. These three Ts are the fruit that genuine faith produces.
The Bible has nothing good to say of the person who behaves like a brute (beast). We first encounter the word בַּעַר in Psalm 49:11 (English 49:10), but it is Psalm 73:23 (22) which unpacks its meaning — “So brutish was I, and ignorant; I was as a beast before you.”
A brute is someone who would strike a cripple down or would treat a brother like a slave outside of Israel is treated. A brute is considered a person who is human in form but a beast in behavior.
Hillel said of the brutish person: “The brute will not fear sin. The ignoramus will not be saintly…. In the place where there are no human beings, try to be one.” (Pirqei Avoth 2:5). Rashi defines a brute as “one bereft of any qualities,” and Maimonides echoes this, insisting that a brute is devoid of wisdom and ethical qualities.
There are surprisingly few occurrences of the word זַיִת in the Hebrew Bible — only 38. The word can refer both to the fruit and to the whole tree.
Here’s a fun one from modern Hebrew… back to Biblical vocabulary tomorrow.
Today, let’s look at the word “neshama” (נְשָׁמָה). R’ Aryeh Kaplan has an article on Aish.com discussing “the three parts of the soul,” identifying them as the nefesh, the neshama, and the ruach.
R’ Kaplan explains:
God’s exhaling a soul can be compared to a glassblower forming a vessel. The breath (neshama) first leaves his lips, travels as a wind (ruach) and finally comes to rest (nefesh) in the vessel. Of these three levels of the soul, neshama is therefore the highest and closes to God, while nefesh is that aspect of the soul residing in the body. Ruach stands between the two, binding man to his spiritual Source. It is for this reason that Divine Inspiration is called Ruach HaKodesh in Hebrew. The neshama is affected only by thought, the ruach by speech, and the nefesh by action.
NASB translates neshama variously as blast (2), breath (15), breathes (1), life (1), persons alive (1), spirit (2), and who breathed (3).
See also the article on “Mi Yodeya”: http://judaism.stackexchange.com/questions/8921/nefesh-neshama-and-ruach-as-words-for-soul